country info for South Africa

Nelson Mandela

The terms South Africa and freedom is inevitably the freedom fighter Nelson Mandela's mind, in 1944 with his friend Oliver Tambo and other political cronies like Walrter Sisulu and Anton Lembebe founded the ANC Youth League.

The ANC had its origin founded in 1914 and was called at that time Afrikan Native National Congress. Cause of the ANC was certainly the Natives Act land. The promises for more freedom, which was in the Boer War made the helping Africans were not met. After the war, the Boers declared 1910 the Africans that 10% of South Africa would be awarded to them and 90% of the African country to the whites. Founded in vain, a delegation traveled to London to protest.

Only 30 years later, the blacks are beginning to organize. A young revolutionary named Nelson Mandela was first talk of 1945 as he and other members of the paper "claim Afrikaans in South Africa" ​​published. Organized in 1946 to 100 0000 miners to protest President Smuts sent a huge contingent of police officers and those working under the pre-preserved Karabiener back into the Minenen.

After the election as general secretary in 1947 Nelson Mandela was the first step into the scene. The hard-liners and co-leader of the segregationist Smuts saw that reforms would be introduced. Thus came the passport Assuming that blacks denied access to white cities if they do not have work.

In May 1948, the South Africans woke up and found that the Merhheit the voters gave the National Party the privilege. The lack of long confrontation in the offing. After several provocations in the wake of the Defiance Campaign by supporters of the ANC, there was an escalation, as in the winter of 1952 the police opened fire on a prayer meeting. Two whites were killed, and then the homes and offices of the ANC movement members were searched and arrested.

One of the most historic events of the racial segregation was the Congress in 1955 near Johannesburg where more than 3,000 African coloreds (whites, blacks, Indians, etc.), the Peace Charter Verabschideten. At this conference, the ANC was formulated based on the party: The Charter was the basis for some 150 imprisoned opposition members who had to answer in front of the White Court. It is this Charter was evidence of "violent Communist revolution." After four years of negotiations, the defendants were acquitted. There will be differences of opinion within the ANC, Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe was in 1958 from the party and founded with like-minded people, the PAC (Pan Africanist Congress).

On 21 March, the PAC was published under the leadership of Robert Sobukwe and thousands of his supporters and followers of the PAC and the ANC without passports to the police. In Sharpeville, the white officers panicked and opened fire against the black mob. About 200 people were injured and 69 people died, most were shot in the back of death. Six days later it arrived in South Africa, demonstrations, Oliver Tambo (ANC leader in exile of späterere) left the country. The next day there was a mass burning of the passes through the black population itself, which stayed away from work and laid in masses of the country paralyzed.

The government Hedrik Verwoerd (who got out of a confused farmer a bullet in the head) has arrested 22 000 people and forbade the PAC and ANC parties. Verwoerd survived two bullets in the head with obvious gunshot residue in the brain, which brought his Arpahrtheitswahn in full swing by the Nazis to Justice Minister John Vorster made. There remained only the subjugation and living in slave-like conditions or the likely deadly resistance of the black against the white savage Nazi elite. We will not let us down, proclaimed the leader of the Umkhoto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) and the leader of the ANC, Nelson Mandela, before he goes into the ground.

1962 Mandela was arrested and sentenced in 1963 with nine other African freedom fighters against the white court to life imprisonment.
Verwoerd was stabbed to death in 1966 of a "disturbed messenger" in Parliament. His successor, John Foster exacerbated by increasing police operations against the Repräsion the black population. The trailer of the Nazi crackdown weakened the ANC to impotence.
In 1976 recorded a transfer from the protests. Nich in the factories, but directly into the townships to black youths took to the streets in protest against the introduction of Afrikaans as a language school.
1977 called this bitter fight several hundreds of deaths. Despite the increase of police presence of the new liberation movement was not be stopped to stop. The late 70s came the tyranny of Foster no longer against the growing opposition. 16% of the white population were compared with a frieheitsstrebenden Africa.
In 1978, PW Botha, the lead. This was not the Lord and tried to sabotage the new constitutions of the blacks more rights of choice to stand and thus to appease them. The strategy he was Indian against blacks against each other, which resulted in the opposite. 15 000 delegates from anti-apartheid groups met up in Cape Town and formed the United Democratic Front. By increasing protests and boycotts, the government came under pressure and it came increasingly to attacks in the Twonships. First pictures went around the world where apartheid soldiers and policemen, unarmed Africans beat and shot.

In September 1989, called on the United States the current ruling de Kerk, contact Nelson Mandela within six months released. De Klerk should fail to meet the demand, the U.S. would impose trade sanctions. This serious threat from Bush Senior is made to de Klerk, the ANC can be run with his negotiating skills and tactics into the void. Trusting in this negotiation and the remaining power, de Klerk said in the following February 1990, the lifting of the ban ALL political parties and the release of Nelson Mandela.

After 18 years in prison, Nelson Mandela became the town hall down to Cape Town, from where he was well over two decades after his first public speech. After four years of tough negotiations, De Klerk his goal of governance through the white race, which accounted for "at least" 16% of Befölkerung not prevail.

With the assassination of Chris Hani, the second most popular leader of the ANC, a killer came right on old fears that the country was directly in front of a civil war!

In the days that followed Nelson Mandela gave daily speeches and television asked the Africans of all races to remain calm. De Klerk followed the ostrich technique and Mandela the chance for peace through elections, which for 27 Was established April 1994. On May 2, de Klerk announced the political failure, the landslide election result with almost 63% of the vote for the ANC was for everyone involved in the sensational way in an uncertain freedom.

The ANC, with the first African Persöhnlichkeit schill at the forefront not only had a pile of rubble in front of him, but also a historic racial segregation front full of fears, expectations and impatience.
The Freedom Charter

All government has to come from the people
Equal rights for all ethnic groups
The financial revenue of the state (nation) will benefit all residents to Good
Property to be divided among all those who work the land
Equality before the law
Equal human rights for all
Work and security for all
The doors to education and cultural heritage sites should be opened
There should be housing and security, and there are proper conditions prevail
Peace and friendship should reign